Viceroys of India (Act 1858)
(1858-14th Aug 1947)
List of Viceroys of India: The company rule was brought to an end after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the British Crown. The Government of India Act 1858 created the Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India.
The adoption of the Government of India Act 1858, the Governor-General of India became the Viceroy of India. The ‘Viceroy of India’, had no statutory authority and was never employed by Parliament. According to this Act Lord Canning was made the first Viceroy of India. Here is a “List of Viceroys of India” during British India, so that aspirant can easily learn chronology as well as their contribution which are helpful for all competitive exams.
Lord Canning (1856-1862):
- Till 1858, he was Governor General of India.
- He was the last Governor-general of India and first viceroy of India (According to Government of India Act, 1858)
- Canning withdrew Doctrine of lapse.
- He opened universities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1857.
- Passed the Act of 1858, which ended the rule of East India Company.
- Income tax was introduced for the first time in 1858 by Sir James Wilson.
- High courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1862.
- Indian councils Act 1861 passed.
- The Indian penal code 1859 was passed
Lord Elgin-1(1862-63) :
- The Wahabis movement suppressed.
- He died in Dharamshala of a heart attack while crossing a mountain bridge.
Lord John Lawrence (1864-69) :
- High courts were established at calculating, Bombay & Madras in 1865.
- War with Bhutan in 1865.
- The famine of Odisha in 1866 followed a severe drought & a similar kind of famine-affected Bundelkhand & Rajputana also.
- The government established the famine commission under the Henry Kemp bell.
- Followed a policy of masterly inactivity for Afghanistan.
- Expanded canal work & railways.
- Created the Indian forest department.
Lord Mayo (1869-72):
- Introduce the financial decentralization in India.
- For the first time in India history, a census was held in 1872.
- He organizes the statistical survey of India.
- Made the first provincial settlement in 1870.
- He established the department of agriculture & commerce.
- India evidence Act passed in 1872.
- Mayo was the only viceroy to be murdered in office.
- Lord Mayo introduced state railways.
Lord Northbrook (1872-76):
- Kula movement in 1872, in Punjab led by Ram Singh.
- Established the Indian Meteorological Department at relating in 1875.
- Deposition of Gaekwad of Baroda in 1875.
- The income tax was abolished by Lord Northbrook.
Lord Lytton (1876-1880):
- He was the Most popular viceroy of India.
- He is known as viceroy of reverse characters.
- Lytton used to write poems with a pen name Owen Meredith.
- A grand Delhi Durbar was organized in 1877 when the country was suffering from a severe famine.
- Passed the royal title act 1876 & Queen Victoria was declared as Kaiser-i-hind.
- He passed arms act in 1878 & lowered the maximum age of ICS from 21 to 19 years.
- Second Anglo-afghan war 1878-80.
You can read also:– Biosphere Reserves in India
Lord Ripon (1880-1884):
- He was known as “father of Local Self-Government”.
- The first official census in India (1881) started.
- The first factory act (1881) was passed. This act prohibited the employment of children under seven.
- Four days leave in a month for the workers.
- Appointed William Hunter commission in 1882 to review the progress of education in India.
- Indian famine code was adopted in 1883 by the Strachey commission.
- He passed the Albert bill (1883), which empowers Indian judges to inquire into European cases.
- Repeal the vernacular press act in 1882.
- He was a liberal person, who sympathized with ideas. He wrote “Duty of Age”.
- Pt Madan Mohan Malvia called Ripon as the “greatest & the most loved viceroy whom India was known”.
Lord Dufferin (1884-1888):
- Indian national congress (INC) was formed during his tenure.
- Third Anglo Burmese war & annexation of Burma(1885).
- Dufferin called INC as “Microscopic Minority”
- Bengal Tenancy Act in 1885.
- Second Factory Act 1891 granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children.
- Indian Council Act of 1892 passed.
- Civil services were classified on to imperial ,provincial and subordinate.
- In 1891, Age of consent Act passed under which marriage of girl below 12 years was prohibited.
- Appointment of Durand commission to define the line between British Indian and Afghanistan.
Lord Elgin II (1894-99):
- The great famine of 1896, Lyall commission was appointed.
- The Santhal uprising of 1899.
- Mundas uprising of 1819.
- The assassination of 2 British officials by the chapekar brothers in 1897.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905):
- Passed the India coinage & paper currency act 1899.
- Appointed a police commission in 1902 under Andrew Frazer.
- Universities commission appointed in 1902, under Thomas Railey.
- Irrigation commission in 1901, after the famine of 1899-1900.
- Indian Universities act, passed in 1904.
- Feminine commission under MacDonnell.
- Partition of Bengal on Oct 16, 1905, into two provinces
2.East Bengal & Assam.
- Curzon authored the book “problems of the far east”.
- He passed the ancient Monuments protection Act 1904 to restore India’s cultural heritage.
Lord Minto-II (1905-1910):
- Arundale committee was constituted in 1906 to work out of the expansion of legislative councils.
- Swadeshi movement
- Surat split (split in Congress between Moderate & Extremist, 1907)
- Indian council act 1909 and Morley Minto reforms passed in 1909.
- Foundation of Muslim league, 1906
- Newspaper act, 1908.
Lord Harding II (1910 – 1916):
- Transfer to Capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
- In 1911, Bihar and Odisha separated from Bengal and become a new state.
- First world war started on August 4, 1914
- Gandhi came back to India from South Africa on 9th January 1915.
- Establishment of Hindu Mahasabha in 1915 by Madan mohan malviya.
- Lokamanya Tilak & Amie Basanta announced the Home rule movement.
Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 21):
- August Declaration of 1917.
- Saddler commission on Education in 1917.
- The Govt. Of India Act 1919, also known as Montague –Chelmsford reforms.
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on 13th April 1919.
- Rowlatt Act of 1919.
- Appointment of Hunter Commission.
- The non-co-operation movement started.
- An Indian Sir S.P. Sinha Was appointed the Governor of Bihar & Odisha.
Lord Reading (1921 – 26):
- Moplah Rebellion took place in Kerala in 1921.
- Chauri–Chaura incident & Withdrawal of non-cooperation movement.
- Formation of Swaraj party by C. R. Das & Motilal Nehru in 1923.
- Communist party of India Founded by M .N .R in 1925.
- Kakori Train Conspiracy in 1925.
- Lee commission for public services in 1924.
- Murder of Swami Shradhanand.
Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931):
- Simon commission visited India in 1928.
- All India Youth Congress 1928.
- Nehru Report, 1928.
- Lahore session of the Congress, 1929 & poorna swaraj declaration.
- Civil disobedience movement was started in 1930.
- Dandi March (12 March –April 6, 1930).
- First Round table conference held in England 1930.
- Gandhi –Irwin pact was signed on 5th March 1931 & civil disobedience movement was withdraw.
- Martyrdom of Jatin Das in Lahore jail after 64 days. Hunger strike 1929.
- Shard Act 1929, under which marriageable age of girls (14 years) & (boys 18 years)
- Nehru & Subash Chandra Bose founded the Independence of India League.
Lord Wellington (1931- 36):
- 2nd Round table conference in London in 1931.
- 3rd Round table conference in London in 1932.
- Communal Award by Mc Donald (British PM).
- Government of India Act, 1935 was passed.
- Poona Pact was signed.
- Orissa was separated from Bihar in 1936. & also Burma separated from India in 1935.
- All India Kisan Sabha in 1936.
Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 44):
- first General Election (1936 – 37) Congress ministries.
- Subash Chandra Bose President of 51th INC in 1938.
- He founded forward Bloc in 1939.
- ‘Deliverance Day’ Observed by Muslim league on 22nd December 1939.
- The outbreak of world war II in 1939.
- August offer 1940.
- Cripps mission 1942.
- Quit India movement 8th August 1942.
- In Haripura session (1939) congress declared complete Independence.
Lord Wavell (1943 – 47):
- Wavell plan & Shimla conference 1945.
- Cabinet mission plan 16th May 1946.
- Muslim league celebrated 16th August 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’.
- 1st meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 9th December 1946.
Lord Mountbatten (Mar – Aug 1947):
- He was the last viceroy of British India & the 1st Governor General on free India.
- June third plan, the partition of India decided.
- Boundary Commissions under Rad cliff.
- Indian Independence Act
- Passed by the British Parliament on 4th July 1947.
- He retired in June 1948.