Governor-General Of India (1833 Act)
Charter Act of 1833 was passed and made lord William Bentinck as the first governor-general of India. The Governor-general of India headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India.
Lord William Bentinck (1828-35):
- He is the most Liberal and enlightened person among all Governor-General of India.
- He is regarded as the “father of modern western education in India”.
- Made English, the medium of higher education.
- Abolition of sati in 1829 and the suppression of thugi in 1830.
- The first medical college was opened in Calcutta in 1835.
- According to the charter Act of 1833, he is the first Governor-general of India.
- Treaty of perpetual friendship with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1831.
- Raja of Mysore was deposed and annexation of his territories in 1831.
- Annexation of cachhar in 1834, jaintia in 1832 and Coorg in 1843 on the chrge of Mal- administration.
- Formation of Arga province in 1834.
Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-36):
- He is known as liberator of press.
- Abolished all restriction on vernacular press through press Act of 1835.
- Passed the famous press law, which liberated the press in India.
Lord Auckland (1836-42):
- First Afghan war (1836-42).
- Death of Rnjit singh in 1839.
Lord Ellenborough (1842-44):
- He became the first Governor-general of India to be recalled for defying the orders of the court of Directors of East India company.
- Absolished “slavery”.
- Sind was annexed by Charles neapier. He was appointed as the first Governor of sind.
- He issued orders for prohibition of female infanticide and suppression of the practice of human sacrifice among the knond tribe of Odisha.
- First Anglo sikh war (1845-46) and treaty of Lahore in 1848.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-56):
- His real name was James Andrew ramsay.
- Introduced the “Doctrine of Lapse” and captured satara in 1848, Jaitpur and sambhalpur in 1849, Udaipur in 1842, Jhansi in 1853 and Nagpur in 1854 through it.
- Introduce /opened the 1st Indian Railway in 1853 (from Bombay to thane ).
- He also opened “telegraph and the postal system in 1853″.
- Widow remarriage Act 1856 passed .
- Abolished title and pensions.
- All ports in India were declared free.
- Established 1st engineering collage at Roorkee. So he was called father of technical education.
- Established a separate public works department in every province.
- Religious Disabilities Act 1856 was passed.
- Woods educational Despatch of 1854.
- Second Anglo-Sikh was (1848-49) and annexation of Panjab.
- Second Anglo-Burmese was in 1852
- Santhal uprisinqs (1855-56).
- Charter Act of 1853 passed.
Lord Canning (1856-1862):
- Till 1858, he was Governor General of India.
- He was the last Governor-general of India and first viceroy of India (According to Government of India Act, 1858)
- He withdrew Doctrine of lapse.
- He opened universities of Calcutta, Bombay and madras in 1857.
- Passed the Act of 1858, which ended the rule of east India Company.
- Income tax was introduced for first time in 1858 by Sir James Wilson.
- High courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and madras in 1862.
- Indian councils Act 1861 passed.
- The Indian penal code 1859 was passed .