Biosphere Reserves in India: Biosphere Reserve program was launched by UNESCO in 1971 under the aegis of its Man and Biosphere (MAB) program to provide a global network of protected areas for conserving natural communities.
Here protection is granted to the flora, fauna of the protected region and also to the Human community who inhabits these Regions.
The purpose of the Biosphere Reserve is the conservation of biological diversity in various ecosystems.
There are 18 Biosphere Reserves set up in India which protects larger areas of Natural Habitat (National park or Sanctury) and along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.
Zones in Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere reserves have 3 interrelated zones that aim to fulfill three complementary and mutually reinforcing functions:
The core area is a strictly protected ecosystem that contributes to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation.
The buffer zone surrounds or adjoins to the core areas. This zone may be used for agricultural land, forests, fisheries or ranchland to enhance the overall quality of production. Also may be used for experimental research.
The transition area is the large outer area of a reserve where people live and work and the greatest activity is allowed. The local communities, conservation agencies, scientists, civil associations, cultural groups, businesses, and other stakeholders agree to work together to manage and use the area in a sustainable way that will benefit the people who live there.
In India first Biosphere Reserve is Nilgiri (TamilNadu, Kerala, Karnataka) came into beginning in 1986. Dibru-Saikhowa in Assam is the smallest and Great Ran of Kutch in Gujarat is the largest Biosphere Reserve in India.
List of Biosphere Reserves in India:
|SI NO.||Name||Year||State||Key fauna|
|2||Nanda Devi||1988||Uttarakhand||Himalayan Musk deer,tahr,snow leopard|
|4||Great Nicober||1989||Andaman & Nicobor||Salt water crocodile|
|5||Gulf Of Manner||1989||Tamil Nadu|
|Dugong or sea cow|
|6||Manas||1989||Assam||Golden Langur, Red panda|
|7||Sundarban||1989||West Bengal||Royal Bengal Tiger|
|8||Similipal||1994||Odisha||Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger,wild elephant|
|10||Dihang-Dibang||1998||Arunachalpradesh||Red panda, Asiatic black deer|
|11||Panchmarhi||1999||Madhyapradesh||Giant Squirrel, Flying Squirrel|
|12||Kangchendzonga||2000||Sikkim||Red panda,Snow Leopard|
|14||Achanakamar-Amarkantak||2005||MP,Chhatisgarh||Chitals, Sambars ,Black Buck|
|15||Ran of Kutch||2008||Gujarat||Wild Ass|
|16||Cold Desert||2009||Himachal Pradesh, J &K||Snow Leopard|
|17||Seshachalan Hills||2010||Andhra Pradesh||Slender Loris|
|18||Panna||2011||Madhya Pradesh||Tiger,Chita,sambharand sloth Bear|
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