Bharat Ratna Complete details

Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the country (India) that was instituted in the year 1954.

It awarded in exceptional public service or performance of the highest order in any field of human activities like the field of art, literature, and science.

Any person in any occupation, position or sex is eligible for this award.

The  Prime Minister of India himself made the recommendations for Bharat Ratna to the President of India.

The Bharat Ratna Award first awarded to politician C. Rajagopalachari, philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and scientist C. V. Raman, 3 persons in 1954.

Till now there are 48 person individuals, including 16 who were awarded posthumously this Award.

The youngest  Bharat Ratna recipient was cricketer Sachin Tendulkar at age 40 years, who received this award in 2014.

Bharat Ratna Award:

  • In a particular year maximum of three awards are given.
  • On conferment of the award, the recipient receives a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a medal.
  • The Award does not carry any monetary grant.
  • In terms of Article 18 (1) of the Constitution, the award cannot be used as a prefix or suffix to the recipient’s name.

Bharat Ratna Medal:

  • The medal/seal is in the form of a peepal leaf, about 5.8 cm long, 4.7 cm wide and 3.1 mm thick.
  • It was made by bronze. On its middle embossed the sun of 1 .6 cm in diameter, below this the words Bharat Ratna are written in Devanagari script.
  • On the reverse of the medal state emblem is present and motto written in the Devanagari script.
  • The emblem, the sun, and rim are of platinum.
  • The inscriptions are in burnished bronze.

Bharat Ratna Award Winners :

Year Name of Person Place Field
1954 C.Rajagopalachari Tamil Nadu Independence  activist
1954 Dr.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Andhra Pradesh Philosopher, India”s 1st Vice President (1952-62), and India”s 2nd President(196267)
1954 C. V. Raman Tamil Nadu Physicist
1955 Bhagwan Das Uttar Pradesh Independence activist, philosopher
1955 Mokshagundam 


Karnataka Civil engineer and Diwan of Mysore (1912–18)
1955 Jawaharlal Nehru Uttar Pradesh Independence activist, author & 1st Prime Minister.
1957 Govind Ballabh Pant Uttar Pradesh Independence activist
1958 Dhondo Keshav Karve Maharashtra Social reformer
1961 Bidhan Chandra Roy West Bengal A physician, political leader
1961 Purushottam Das Tandon Uttar Pradesh Independence activist, educator
1962 Rajendra Prasad Bihar Independence activist, lawyer& first President
1963 Pandurang Vaman Kane Maharashtra Indologist and Sanskrit scholar



Zakir Hussain

Andhra  Pradesh Independence activist, Scholar, third President



Lal Bahadur Shastri


Uttar Pradesh

Posthumous, independence activist, second Prime Minister



Indira Gandhi

Uttar Pradesh The First Woman Prime Minister of India
1975 V. V. Giri (1975) Odisha Trade unionist
1976 K. Kamaraj (Posthumous) Tamil Nadu Independence  activist



Mother Teresa

West Bengal/Albania Catholic nun, founder of the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata
1983 Vinoba Bhave (Posthumous)  


social reformer, independence activist
1987 Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Pakistan First noncitizen, independence activist
1988 M. G. Ramachandran  Tamil Nadu Posthumous, film actor, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu



Nelson Mandela


South Africa

Second non-citizen and non-Indian recipient.





B. R. Ambedkar (Posthumous)


Madhya Pradesh

The chief architect of the Indian Constitution, Social Reformer, politician, economist, and scholar
1991 Morarji Desai Gujarat Independence activist
1991 Vallabhbhai Patel (Posthumous) Gujarat independence activist, first Home Minister.
1991 Rajiv Gandhi (Posthumous) Uttar Pradesh Sixth Prime Minister.
1992 Satyajit Ray West Bengal Bengali Filmmaker
1992 J. R. D. Tata Maharashtra Industrialist and philanthropist



Abul Kalam Azad



West Bengal

Independence  activist, first Minister of Education
1997 Aruna Asaf Ali West Bengal Posthumous, independence  activist



Gulzarilal Nanda



Independence activist, interim Prime Minister

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Tamil Nadu Aeronautical Engineer, 11th President of India



Jayaprakash Narayan

Bihar   Posthumous, independence activist and politician
1998 Chidambaram Subramaniam Tamil Nadu Independence activist, Minister of Agriculture
1998 M. S. Subbulakshmi Tamil Nadu Carnatic classical singer
1999 Gopinath Bordoloi


Assam Independence  activist
1999 Amartya Sen West Bengal Economist
1999 Ravi Shankar West Bengal Sitar player from Calcutta
2001 Bismillah Khan Bihar Hindustani classical shehnai player
2001 Lata Mangeshkar Maharashtra Playback singer
2009 Bhimsen Joshi Karnataka Hindustani classical singer
2014 Sachin Tendulkar Maharashtra Cricketer
2014 C. N. R. Rao Karnataka Scientist
2015 Madan Mohan Malaviya (Posthumous) Uttar Pradesh Scholar and educational reformer and founder of Banaras Hindu University.
2015 Atal Bihari Vajpayee Madhya Pradesh Exprime Minister and one of the best parliamentarians for over four decades.
2019 Pranab Mukherjee West Bengal Indian politician
2019 Bhupen Hazarika


Assam Indian playback singer, lyricist, musician, poet and filmmaker
2019 Nanaji Deshmukh


Maharashtra Social  activist

Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award in India that was instituted in the year 1954.Maximum 3 people awarded at once in one year.


There was no prize money given in the Bharat Ratna award.

Indira Gandhi was the first woman to receive the Bharat Ratna award in 1971. She was also the first woman Prime Minister of India from 1966 to 1977.

Cricketer Sachin Tendulkar's youngest person to receive Bharat Ratna at age 40 years in 2014.

Bhupen Hazarika was the famous singer is awarded Bharat Ratna in 2019.

You can read also: Padma Awards Complete Details

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